铝板生产厂家

铝板固溶处理保温时间要考虑哪些因素?

来源:  发布时间:2020-06-08 10:29:13  

  保温时间的选择原则是使强化相在正常热处理温度下满意溶解,使固溶充分均匀,晶粒细化。
  The selection principle of holding time is to make the strengthening phase dissolve satisfactorily under normal heat treatment temperature, to make the solid solution fully and evenly, and to refine the grains.
  铝合金硬化占用时间的性质主要是根据淬火加热温度、合金、类型的产品和之前固溶体状态组织(加强阶段特征和大小分布),产品的形状(包括截面厚度的大小),加热模式(盐浴炉和空气循环炉、连续或不连续加热),加热介质和冷却方式和水平的装炉,和组织因素来确定绩效要求。
  The properties of hardening time of aluminum alloy are mainly based on quenching temperature, alloy, type of products and previous solid solution state structure (strengthening stage characteristics and size distribution), product shape (including the size of section thickness), heating mode (salt bath furnace and air circulation furnace, continuous or discontinuous heating), heating medium, cooling mode and horizontal charging, And organizational factors to determine performance requirements.

铝板生产厂家
  对于同一牌号的合金,在确定保持时间时应考虑以下因素
  For the alloy of the same brand, the following factors should be taken into account when determining the holding time
  (1)产品的形状。淬火加热的保温时间与产品的形状(包括截面厚度的大小)密切相关。截面厚度越大,保温时间越长。对于大截面的半成品和形状变化小的工件,应适当延长淬火时间,使淬火阶段充分溶解。大型锻件和模具锻件的保温时间是薄件的几倍。
  (1) The shape of the product. The holding time of quenching heating is closely related to the shape of the product (including the thickness of the section). The greater the section thickness, the longer the holding time. For the semi-finished products with large cross-section and the workpieces with small shape change, the quenching time should be appropriately extended to make the quenching stage fully dissolved. The holding time of large forgings and die forgings is several times that of thin ones.
  (2)加热温度。淬火加热的保温时间与加热温度密切相关。加热温度越高,强化相融入固溶的速度越快,保温时间越短。
  (2) Heating temperature. The holding time of quenching is closely related to the heating temperature. The higher the heating temperature is, the faster the strengthening phase melts into solid solution and the shorter the holding time.
  (3)塑性变形程度及产品类型。热处理前加压加工可以加速强化相的溶解。变形程度越大,强化相尺寸越小,保温时间越短。如果冷变形后的工件在加热过程中发生再结晶,应注意防止再结晶晶粒过大。临界变形程度不应在固溶处理前进行处理。为了保持挤出效果,应缩短挤压产品的保温时间。对于挤压变形程度较大的挤压材料模锻件,如果淬火加热保温时间过长,由于再结晶过程,部分或全部挤压效果消失,降低产品的纵向强度。挤压变形程度越大,保温所需时间越短。
  (3) Degree of plastic deformation and product type. Pressure processing before heat treatment can accelerate the dissolution of strengthening phase. The larger the deformation degree, the smaller the strengthening phase size and the shorter the holding time. If recrystallization occurs in the process of heating after cold deformation, care should be taken to prevent excessive recrystallization grains. The critical deformation degree should not be treated before solution treatment. In order to keep extrusion effect, the heat preservation time of extruded products should be shortened. If the time of quenching and heat preservation is too long, some or all of the extrusion effect will disappear due to the recrystallization process, and the longitudinal strength of the product will be reduced. The greater the degree of extrusion deformation is, the shorter the time of heat preservation is.
  (4)原组织。产品提前淬火后,再加热已溶火,可显著缩短保温时间。退火前硬化阶段的溶解速率明显慢于冷加工阶段的溶解速率。
  (4) Original organization. After the product is quenched in advance and reheated, the heat preservation time can be shortened significantly. The dissolution rate in the hardening stage before annealing is significantly slower than that in the cold working stage.
  (5)坯料均匀度。对于均质不足的产品,残留强化阶段较多且较大,因此保温时间应延长。固溶处理和同质化的共同目的是完全溶解硬化阶段,但总的来说,均匀化退火窑的精度较低,所以很容易过于热衷的均一化温度提高,为了充分消除非平衡结晶相。此外,齐次退火时间长,经济效益较低,所以链接均化和淬火过程可以被认为是根据产品合金的性质和处理技术解决的问题充分固溶强化阶段,因为加强阶段结构大变形严重破碎后,尺寸更小,固溶淬火更容易得到解决。
  (5) Evenness of blank. For products with insufficient homogeneity, the residual strengthening stage is more and larger, so the holding time should be extended. The common purpose of solution treatment and homogenization is to completely dissolve and harden, but generally speaking, the accuracy of homogenization annealing furnace is low, so it is easy to increase the homogenization temperature too enthusiastically, in order to fully eliminate the non-equilibrium crystalline phase. In addition, the homogeneous annealing time is long and the economic benefit is low, so the link homogenization and quenching process can be considered as the full solution strengthening stage according to the properties of the product alloy and the problems solved by the treatment technology, because in the strengthening stage, after the large deformation of the structure is seriously broken, the size is smaller and the solution quenching is easier to be solved.
  (6)组织和绩效要求。当需要产品粒度时,应考虑缩短停留时间。此外,还开发了双淬和分级淬火工艺,以获得细晶粒组织。二次淬火是指在同一高温下使用两次短时间淬火,但两次淬火保温时间之和与原保温时间相同,其原理是不给晶粒生长时间和机会;分级淬火第一阶段采用低温来完成组织中亚晶粒的发育,降低了再结晶的驱动力,使晶粒在第二阶段的高温溶液中不易长大。当产品具有较高的腐蚀性能、断裂韧性和疲劳性能要求时,如航空铝合金等淬火保温时间应至少延长一倍。
  (6) Organization and performance requirements. When product granularity is needed, the reduction of residence time should be considered. In addition, double quenching and step quenching processes were developed to obtain fine grain structure. Secondary quenching refers to the use of two short-term quenching at the same high temperature, but the sum of the two quenching holding times is the same as the original holding time, the principle of which is not to give the grain growth time and opportunity; the first stage of graded quenching uses low temperature to complete the development of sub grains in the structure, reducing the driving force of recrystallization, so that the grains are not easy to grow in the high temperature solution of the second stage. When the products have high requirements of corrosion, fracture toughness and fatigue properties, such as aviation aluminum alloy, the quenching and holding time should be extended by at least one time.
  其他因素,如合金的性质、加热条件、加热介质和炉容量也必须考虑。可热处理强化铝合金各强化相的溶出速率不同。例如,Mg2Si的溶解速度比Mg2Al3快。淬火和保温时间必须保证强化相能充分溶解,才能使合金得到最大的强化效果。但加热时间不宜过长。在某些情况下,长时间的加热会降低合金的性能。对于某些在加热温度下晶粒较粗的合金(如6063、2A50等),应缩短保温时间,在保证硬化的条件下避免晶粒长大。对于数量大、尺寸大的零件,保温时间要长一些。炉量小,零件间距大,保温时间短。
  Other factors, such as alloy properties, heating conditions, heating medium and furnace capacity, must also be considered. The dissolution rate of each strengthening phase is different. For example, the dissolution rate of Mg2Si is faster than that of Mg2Al3. Quenching and holding time must ensure that the strengthening phase can be fully dissolved, so that the alloy can get the maximum strengthening effect. But the heating time should not be too long. In some cases, heating for a long time will reduce the properties of the alloy. For some alloys with coarse grains (such as 6063, 2A50, etc.) at heating temperature, the holding time should be shortened to avoid grain growth under the condition of ensuring hardening. For large quantity and large size parts, the heat preservation time is longer. Small furnace capacity, large distance between parts and short holding time.
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