澳门金沙

影响铝合金性能的元素是什么

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  在生产实践中,可根据产品的合金成分、品种、规格、用途、数量与质量要求、市场需求,以及设备配置与国情等具体条件来选择合适的生产方法。
  In production practice, suitable production methods can be selected according to the specific conditions of alloy composition, variety, specification, use, quantity and quality requirements, market demand, equipment configuration and national conditions.
  铝合金管按挤压方式分:无缝铝管,和普通挤压管铝合金管按厚度分:普通铝管和薄壁铝管 性能:耐腐蚀、重量轻。
  Aluminum alloy tubes can be divided into seamless aluminium tubes according to extrusion mode, and aluminium alloy tubes can be divided into ordinary aluminium tubes and Thin-walled Aluminium tubes according to thickness: corrosion resistance and light weight.
  铝合金管广泛用于各行各业,如:汽车、轮船、航天、航空、电器、农业、机电、家居等,铝管于大家的生活已经无处不在。
  Aluminum alloy tubes are widely used in all walks of life, such as automobiles, ships, aerospace, aviation, electrical appliances, agriculture, electromechanical, household and so on. Aluminum tubes are everywhere in our life.
  铝合金管按外形分:方管、圆管、花纹管、异型管铝合金管按精度分:普通铝管和精密铝管,其中精密铝管一般需要在挤压后进行再加工,如冷拉精抽,轧制。
  Aluminum alloy tubes are divided into square tubes, circular tubes, pattern tubes and special-shaped tubes according to their accuracy: ordinary aluminium tubes and precise aluminium tubes. Among them, precise aluminium tubes need to be reprocessed after extrusion, such as cold drawing, fine drawing and rolling.
  影响铝合金性能的八大元素有:钒、钙、铅、锡、铋、锑、铍及钠等金属元素,根据成品用途不一样,在加工过程中所加入的元素由于熔点高低不一,结构不同,与铝形成的化合物也不同,因而对于铝合金性能的影响也不一样。
  The eight major elements affecting the properties of aluminium alloys are: vanadium, calcium, lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, beryllium and sodium. According to the different uses of finished products, the elements added in the process of processing are different because of the different melting points, different structures and the compounds formed by aluminium, so the effects on the properties of aluminium alloys are also different.
  1、金属元素:铜元素的影响
  1. Metal Elements: The Effect of Copper Elements铜是重要的合金元素,有一定的固溶强化效果,此外时效析出的CuAl2有着显著的时效强化效果。铝板中铜含量通常在2.5%-5%,铜含量在4%-6.8%时强化效果较好,所以大部门硬铝合金的含铜量处于这范围。
  Copper is an important alloy element, which has a certain solid solution strengthening effect. In addition, CuAl2 precipitated during aging has a significant aging strengthening effect. The copper content in aluminium sheet is usually 2.5% - 5%, and the copper content is 4% - 6.8%. Therefore, the copper content of most hard aluminium alloys is in this range.
  2、金属元素:硅元素的影响
  2. Metal Elements: The Effect of Silicon ElementsAl-Mg2Si合金系合金平衡相图Mg2Si在铝中的较大溶解度为1.85%,且随温度的降低而减速小,变形铝合金中,硅单独加入铝板中只限于焊接材料,硅加入铝中亦有一定的强化作用。
  The maximum solubility of Mg2Si in Al-Mg2Si alloy equilibrium phase diagram is 1.85%, and decreases with the decrease of temperature. In deformed aluminum alloy, the addition of silicon to aluminum plate is limited to welding materials, and the addition of silicon to aluminum also has a certain strengthening effect.
  3、金属元素:镁元素的影响
  3. Metal Elements: The Effect of Magnesium镁对铝的强化是显著的,每增加1%镁,抗拉强度大约升高34MPa。假如加入1%以下的锰,可能增补强化作用。因此加锰后可降低镁含量,同时可降低热裂倾向,另外锰还可以使Mg5Al8化合物平均沉淀,改善抗蚀性和焊接机能。
  Magnesium strengthens aluminium remarkably. The tensile strength increases by about 34 MPa for every 1% increase of magnesium. If less than 1% manganese is added, the strengthening effect may be added. Therefore, manganese can reduce magnesium content and hot cracking tendency. In addition, manganese can also make Mg5Al8 compound precipitate averagely, improve corrosion resistance and welding function.
  4、金属元素:锰元素的影响
  4. Metal Elements: The Effect of Manganese锰在固溶体中的较大溶解度为1.82%。合金强度随溶解度增加不断增加,锰含量为0.8%时,延伸率达较大值。Al-Mn合金长短时效硬化合金,即不可热处理强化。
  The maximum solubility of manganese in solid solution is 1.82%. The strength of the alloy increases with the increase of solubility. When the content of manganese is 0.8%, the elongation reaches the maximum. Al-Mn alloy can harden for long and short time, i.e. it can not be strengthened by heat treatment.

                                    铝板生产厂家
  5、金属元素:锌元素的影响
  5. Metal Elements: The Effect of Zinc
  Al-Zn合金系平衡相图275锌在铝中的溶解度为31.6%,而在125时其溶解度则下降到5.6%。锌单独加入铝中,在变形前提下对铝合金强度的进步十分有限,同时存在应力侵蚀开裂、倾向,因而限制了它的应用。
  The solubility of zinc in aluminium in equilibrium phase figure 275 of Al-Zn alloy system is 31.6%, while it decreases to 5.6% at 125. When zinc is added to aluminium alone, the progress of strength of aluminium alloy is limited under the condition of deformation. At the same time, stress corrosion cracking and tendency exist, which limits its application.
  6、金属元素:铁和硅的影响
  6. Metal Elements: Effects of Iron and Silicon铁在Al-Cu-Mg-Ni-Fe系锻铝合金中,硅在Al-Mg-Si系锻铝中和在Al-Si系焊条及铝硅锻造合金中,均作为合金元素加的,在其它铝合金中,硅和铁是常见的杂质元素,对合金机能有显著的影响。它们主要以FeCl3和游离硅存在。在硅大于铁时,形成β-FeSiAl3(或Fe2Si2Al9)相,而铁大于硅时,形成α-Fe2SiAl8(或Fe3Si2Al12)。当铁和硅比例不当时,会引起铸件产生裂纹,铸铝中铁含量过高时会使铸件产生脆性。
  In Al-Cu-Mg-Ni-Fe forged aluminium alloys, silicon is added as alloying elements in Al-Mg-Si forged aluminium alloys, Al-Si welding rods and Al-Si forged alloys. Among other aluminium alloys, silicon and iron are common impurity elements, which have a significant effect on the function of the alloys. They mainly exist in FeCl3 and free silicon. When silicon is larger than iron, the phase of beta-FeSiAl3 (or Fe2Si2Al9) is formed, while when iron is larger than silicon, the phase of alpha-Fe2SiAl8 (or Fe3Si2Al12) is formed. When the ratio of iron to silicon is not appropriate, cracks will occur in the castings. When the iron content in the cast aluminum is too high, brittleness will occur in the castings.
  7、金属元素:钛和硼的影响
  7. Metal Elements: Effects of Titanium and Boron钛是铝合金中常用的添加元素,以Al-Ti或Al-Ti-B中间合金形式加入。钛与铝形成TiAl2相,成为结晶时的非自发核心,起细化锻造组织和焊缝组织的作用。Al-Ti系合金产生包反应时,钛的临界含量约为0.15%,假如有硼存在则减速小到0.01%。
  Titanium is a common addition element in aluminium alloys, which is added in the form of Al-Ti or Al-Ti-B master alloys. TiAl2 phase is formed between titanium and aluminium, which becomes the non-spontaneous core during crystallization and refines the forging structure and weld structure. The critical content of titanium in Al-Ti alloy is about 0.15% when cladding reaction occurs. If boron exists, the reduction is less than 0.01%.
  铬在铝板中形成(CrFe)Al7和(CrMn)Al12等金属间化合物,阻碍再结晶的形核和长大过程,对合金有一定的强化作用,还能改善合金韧性和降低应力侵蚀开裂敏感性。但会场增加淬火敏感性,使阳极氧化膜呈黄色,铬在铝合金中的添加量一般不超过0.35%,并随合金中过渡元素的增加而降低。
  Chromium forms intermetallic compounds (CrFe) Al7 and (CrMn) Al12 in aluminium sheet, which hinder the recrystallization nucleation and growth process. It has a certain strengthening effect on the alloy, and can also improve the toughness and reduce the stress corrosion cracking sensitivity of the alloy. However, with the increase of quenching sensitivity, the anodic oxide film becomes yellow, and the addition of chromium in aluminium alloys generally does not exceed 0.35%, which decreases with the increase of transition elements in the alloys.
  对挤压用铝合金中加入0.015%-0.03%锶,使铸锭中β-AlFeSi相变成汉字形α-AlFeSi相,减少了铸锭平均化时间60%-70%,进步材料力学机能和塑性加工性;改善制品表面粗拙度。对于高硅(10%-13%)变形铝合金中加入0.02%-0.07%锶元素,可使初晶减少至较低限度,力学机能也明显进步,抗拉强度бb由233MPa进步到236MPa,屈服强度б0.2由204MPa提高到210MPa,延伸率б5由9%增至12%。在过共晶Al-Si合金中加入锶,能减小初晶硅粒子尺寸,改善塑性加工机能,可顺利地热轧和冷轧。
  The addition of 0.015%-0.03% strontium to the aluminium alloy for extrusion can change the beta-AlFeSi phase in the ingot into Chinese alpha-AlFeSi phase, reduce the average time of the ingot by 60%-70%, improve the mechanical function and plastic workability of the material, and improve the roughness of the surface of the product. For high silicon (10%-13%) wrought aluminium alloy, adding 0.02%-0.07% strontium element can reduce the primary crystallization to the minimum, and improve the mechanical properties. Tensile strength B increases from 233 MPa to 236 MPa, yield strength 0.2 increases from 204 MPa to 210MPa, and elongation increases from 9% to 12%. The addition of Strontium in hypereutectic Al-Si alloy can reduce the size of primary silicon particles, improve the plastic processing function, and smooth hot and cold rolling.
 

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