Aluminum is a natural property. Aluminum is a light metal. Its compounds are widely distributed in nature. The resources of aluminum in the earth's crust are about 400~500 billion tons, second only to oxygen and silicon, with third. Among the metal varieties, steel is only second kinds of metals. Aluminum has special chemical and physical properties. It is not only light weight, strong texture, but also has good ductility, conductivity, heat conductivity, heat resistance and radiation resistance. It is an important basic material for the development of national economy.
The specific gravity of aluminum is 2.7, and its density is 2.72g/cm3, which is about 1/3 of common metals. The mechanical properties of industrial pure aluminum are not only related to purity, but also to the processing state of materials. Due to the good plasticity and ductility of aluminum, it is easy to process all kinds of cold and hot pressure. It can be made of aluminum foil with a thickness of only 0.006 millimeters, and it can also be cooled to very fine wire. By adding other elements, aluminum can also be made of alloy to harden it, and its strength can even exceed that of structural steel, but it still maintains the advantage of light weight.
The production of aluminum ingot is made up of bauxite mining, alumina production, aluminum electrolysis and other production links.
There are mainly three types of bauxite producing alumina: gibbsite, diaspore and diaspore. Of the proven bauxite global reserves, 92% is the weathered red clay bauxite, which belongs to the trihydrate type. The bauxite is characterized by low silicon, high iron and high aluminum silicon ratio, concentrated in western Africa, Oceania and central and South America. The other 8% are sedimentary bauxite, which belong to a kind of diaspore and diaspore, with medium and low grade. It is mainly distributed in Greece, former Yugoslavia and Hungary. Because of the different characteristics of the three bauxite, various alumina production enterprises have adopted different production processes in production. At present, there are three kinds of Bayer process, alkali lime sintering method and Bayer sintering method. Usually bauxite ore is produced by Bayer process, and middle and low grade bauxite is produced by combined or sintering method. Bayer process has become the most important method of alumina production because of its simple process and low energy consumption, which accounts for about 95% of the total amount of alumina production in the world.
The production of aluminum electrolysis can be divided into three categories: the self inserted anode slot, the self inserted anode slot and the prebaked anode slot. The production of electrolytic aluminum by self baking tank has the characteristics of simple equipment, short construction period and less investment, but the flue gas can not be treated, the pollution of the environment is serious, the mechanization is difficult, the labor intensity is large, the production is not easy to be large, the production of single slot is low, and the production process is being eliminated. At present, most of the countries and production enterprises in the world are using large precalcined tanks. The current intensity of the grooves is above 350KA, which not only has high automation, low energy consumption and high output of single slot, but also meets the requirements of environmental protection regulations.
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