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铝元素合金强化的性能你知道吗?

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1.固溶强化
1. solid solution strengthening
合金元素加入纯铝中形成无限固溶体或有限固溶体,不仅能获得高的强度,而且还能获得优良的塑性与良好的压力加工性能。在一般铝合金中固溶强化较常用的合金元素是铜、镁、锰、锌、硅、镍等元素。一般铝的合金化都形成有限的固溶体,如Al-Cu,Al-Mg,Al-Zn,Al-Si,Al-Mn等二元合金均形成有限固溶体,并且都有较大的极限溶解度能起较大的固溶强化效果。
Alloy elements are added into pure aluminum to form an infinite solid solution or a finite solid solution, which not only achieves high strength, but also obtains excellent plasticity and good pressure performance. The most commonly used alloy elements for solid solution strengthening in general aluminum alloys are copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc, silicon, nickel and other elements. In general, alloying of aluminum all forms limited solid solutions, such as Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Zn, Al-Si, Al-Mn and other two alloy all form finite solid solution, and have greater limit solubility, which can play a larger role in solid solution strengthening.
2.时效强化
2. aging hardening
铝合金热处理后可以得到过饱和的铝基固溶体。这种过饱和铝基固溶体在室温或加热到某一温度时,其强度和硬度随时间和延长而增高,但塑性降低。这个过程就称时效。时效过程中使合金的强度、硬度增高的现象称为时效强化或时效硬化。
The supersaturated aluminum based solid solution can be obtained after heat treatment of aluminum alloy. The strength and hardness of this supersaturated aluminum solid solution increase with time and extension at room temperature or heating to a certain temperature, but the plasticity decreases. This process is called the timeliness. The phenomenon of increasing the strength and hardness of the alloy during the aging process is called aging hardening or aging hardening.

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3.过剩相强化
3. superfluous phase enhancement
当铝中加入的合金元素含水量超过其极限溶解度时,淬火加热时便有一部分不能溶入固溶体的第二相出现称之为过剩相。在铝合金中过剩相多为硬而脆的金属间化合物。它们在合金中起阻碍滑移和位错运动的作用,使强度、硬度提高,而塑性、韧性降低。合金中过剩相的数量愈多,其强化效果愈好,但过剩相多时,由于合金变脆而导致强度、塑性降低。
When the water content of the alloy added to aluminum exceeds its limit solubility, a second part of the alloy can not be dissolved into solid solution when it is quenched and heated, which is called an excess phase. In the aluminum alloy, the excess phase is mostly hard and brittle intermetallic compound. They impede the movement of slip and dislocation in the alloy, and increase the strength and hardness, while the plasticity and toughness decrease. The more the excess phase in the alloy is, the better the strengthening effect is, but the strength and plasticity of the alloy will be reduced due to the brittle alloy.
4.细化组织强化
4. refine tissue enhancement
在铝合中添加微量元素细化组织是提高铝合金力学性能的另一种重要手段。
It is another important means to improve the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy with the addition of micro elements in the aluminum alloy.
变形铝合金中添加微量钛、锆、铍、锶以及稀土元素,它们能形成难熔化合物,在合金结晶时作为非自发晶核,起细化晶粒作用,提高合金的强度和塑性。
The addition of trace titanium, zirconium, beryllium, strontium and rare earth element deformation Aluminum Alloy, they can form refractory compounds, as non self crystal nucleus in alloy crystallization, grain refinement effect, improve the strength and ductility of the alloy.
铸造铝合金中常加入微量元素作变质处理来细化合金组织,提高强度和塑性。变质处理对不能热处理强化或强化效果不大的铸造铝合金和变形铝合金具有特别重要的意义。比如在铝硅铸造铝合金中加入微量钠或钠盐或锑作变质剂进行变质处理,细化组织可以显著提高塑性和强度。同样在铸造铝合金中加入少量锰、铬、钴等元素能使杂质铁形成的板块状或针状化合物AlFeSi细化,提高塑性,加入微量锶可消除或减少初晶硅,并使共晶硅细化;粒子园整度提高。
A trace element is often added to the cast aluminum alloy to refine the alloy structure and improve the strength and plasticity. The modification is of special significance to the cast aluminum alloy and the deformed aluminum alloy which can not be enhanced by heat treatment. For example, the addition of sodium or sodium salt or antimony as a modifier in Al Si cast aluminum alloy can be modified to improve the plasticity and strength of the aluminum alloy. Similarly, adding a small amount of manganese, chromium, cobalt and other elements in the cast aluminum alloy can make the plate or needle like compounds AlFeSi refined and improve plasticity. The addition of Trace Strontium can eliminate or reduce the primary silicon and make the eutectic silicon refined.
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